1931 china floods map

December 12th, 2020

Widespread population displacement and the destruction of sanitation systems provided perfect conditions for a number of pathogenic microbes. [21], Thomas Harnsberger, a missionary of the Presbyterian Church in Taizhou, Jiangsu, was one of the two central figures (alongside General Wang Shuxiang,[22] a PhD in hydraulics) who supervised the rebuilding of the dikes at Lake Gaoyou, as well as securing the funds for it. He estimated that approximately 2 million people had been killed nationwide as a result of the 1931 flood. The floods inundated approximately 180,000 square kilometres (69,000 sq mi) – an area equivalent in size to England and half of Scotland, or the states of New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut combined. The 1931 Flood in China: An Economic Survey, (Nanking: The University of Nanking, 1932), p.8. The 1931 China floods, or the 1931 Yangtze–Huai River floods, were a series of floods that occurred from June to August 1931 in the Republic of China, hitting major cities such as Wuhan, Nanjing and beyond, which eventually culminated into a dike breach along Lake Gaoyou on August 25, 1931. By June, those living in low areas had already been forced to abandon their homes. [42] Finally, Anne Lindbergh wrote a memoir describing her flight over the disaster zone, which also charts her husband’s failed attempt to provide medical supplies to flood refugees. Hanyang xianzhi (Gazetteer of Hanyang County). Then, heavy snowstorms occurred during the winter of the late 1930s. Engineering the State: The Huai River and Reconstruction in Nationalist China, 1927-1937. Shijiazhuang: Hebei Renmin Chubanshe, 2001 [1933]. Report of the National Flood Relief Commission 1931-1932. Yan Changhong. In 1931, the greatest natural disaster ever recorded happened in China. Throughout the most devastating period of the disaster, therefore, low-level initiatives played a vital role in assisting refugees. 100,000+ St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Holy Roman Empire: 1530 6. South China Morning Post 14,527 views “Possible influence of ENSO on annual maximum streamflow of the Yangtze River, China.” Journal of Hydrology 333 (2007): 265– 274. “Analysis of Historical Floods on the Yangtze River, China: Characteristics and Explanations.” Geomorphology 13 (2009): 210–216. The authors of this study were keen to stress that because of the lack of extant data it is impossible to determine an accurate death toll. Wu Yijin, William A. Gough, Jiang Tong, Wang Xuelei, and Jin Weibin. Street Criers: A Cultural History of Chinese Beggars. The relief effort become much more difficult following the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in the autumn of 1931, which caused the Chinese bond market to collapse. 100,000 Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam: 1971 7. [29] The project did not move beyond the planning stage in Mao's time, due to a lack of resources, rising Sino-Soviet tensions and the disruptions of the Great Leap Forward. [29] The amount of earthwork conducted in just six months was said to have been sufficient to construct a dyke two metres high and two metres wide around the entire length of the of equator. “Climatic Jumps in the Flood/Drought Historical Chronology of Central China.” Climate Dynamics 6 (1992): 153-160. Wuhan: Hubei renmin chubanshe, 1996. Li et al. Mortality: 2 Million. [21] Pi Mingxiu eds. “Sanshi niandai shuizai dui zaimin shehui xinli de yingxiang – yi liang Hudiqu wei li (The Impact of Flooding Upon the Social Pschology of Refugees in the 1930s – Using the example of Hubei and Hunan).” Jianghan Tribune 3. The floods killed crops, washed out grain storage facilities, leveled houses, and destroyed roads. by Peiwei Zheng and Guiqing Liu (Beijing: Zhongguo dianying chubanshe, 1996). Shui (Water). Nanjing, the capital of China at the time, was under water for six weeks. Jiang Zhuping, ed. Clubb had experienced the flood personally whilst working in the American Consulate in Hankou, and was keen to highlight the devastating effects of the disaster. [11][12], At the time the government estimated that 25 million people had been affected by the flood. Zheng Peiwei and Liu Guiqing. On August 18, 1931, the Yangtze River in China peaked during a horrible flood inundated an area equivalent in size to England & half of Scotland. Glantz, Mickey. – “Water Calamities and Dike Management in the Jianghan Plain in the Qing and the Republic.” Late Imperial China 27, no. [19], As well as inundating rural areas, the flood caused widespread destruction to a number of cities. When floodwater coursed into the Middle Yangzi city of Wuhan, an estimated 400,000 people were left homeless. Even the famous aviators Charles Lindbergh and his wife Anne Lindbergh became involved, as they were commissioned to conduct an aerial survey of the flood zone. [42] In Zhongguo wusheng dianying juben (Scripts of Chinese silent films), ed. A field survey by University of Nanking led by John Lossing Buck immediately after the flood found "150,000 people had drowned, and that this number represented less than a quarter of all fatalities during the first 100 days of the flood. [2] During periods of excessive rainfall and poor hydraulic governance, however, rising water and neglected dykes allowed rivers and lakes to reclaim the plains that had been occupied by human beings.[3]. The burden of evidence, including that provided by the study itself, suggests that this figure underestimates the extent of mortality by a large margin. Carnegie Mellon University, 2012, 24-April. Buck, Pearl S. The First Wife and Other Stories. “Combatting the Famine Dragon.” News Bulletin (Institute of Pacific Relations), April 1928. Forgotten China Flood of 1931 – The Most Devastating Flood of the 20 th century,. With little food and a complete breakdown in sanitation, thousands soon began to succumb to diseases.[19]. [2] On the effect of climate on flooding see Zhang Qiang, Marco Gemmer and Chen Jiaqi , “Climate Changes and Flood/Drought Risk in the Yangtze Delta, China, During the Past Millennium,” Quaternary International 176-177 (2008): pp. Social Responses: The official relief effort has been the major focus of most historical studies of the 1931 flood. [13] In the short term this led to what Amartya Sen has described as “entitlement failure.”[14] It also had a longer-term detrimental impact upon the economic prospects of many households. Excessive deforestation, wetland reclamation, and the over-extension of river dyke networks transformed regular flood pulses, which were an integral feature of the fluvial ecosystem, into destructive inundations, which wrought chaos upon human communities. This was a considerable challenge, not just because the flood had destroyed much of the communication and transportation infrastructure but also because China was in midst of both international and domestic wars. [11] The total economic losses were equal to one and a half year’s net income per family. Comparatively, that’s an area almost equal to the whole of England plus half of Scotland. Deng Tuo [Original published under the name Deng Yunte]. [11] Ibid. The flood had a serious impact upon an area of 169,000 km2, excluding rivers and lakes. The Central China Flood may have killed as many as 3.7 million people. Topical Press Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images [26] Although Song Ziwen remained the nominal head of the NFRC, with China facing political instability and an ongoing Japanese invasion, much of the responsibility for the day to day running the relief effort was entrusted the John Hope Simpson, a British refugee expert sent by the League of Nations to assist with the relief effort. These periodic crises only began to abate when the state once again began to invest in the dyke network, thereby beginning the hydraulic cycle anew. Haiyuan earthquake, 1920. ), edited by Zhang Jiong. In Southern Anhui a staggering 61% of the population became refugees. Wuhan wenshi ziliao (Wuhan Literary and Historical Materials). The Yangtze River, the longest river in Asia, also is one of the world’s major waterways. [19] With sanitation systems destroyed and refugees crowding into limited areas of dry ground, deadly diseases soon began decimating rural and urban citizens alike. Yellow River flood, 1938-47. Bourdillon” February 23rd 1932 John Hope Simpson Papers, Folder 6 (i), Balliol College Archives, Oxford; North China Herald, “Wuhan Cities Faced With Famine Conditions” August 25th 1931. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005. 230,000: 1975 Banqiao Dam failure: 1975 4. David Pietz’s Engineering the State provides one of the most detailed analyses, including a chapter on the flood in his study of the Huai River Conservancy. [24] Lillian M. Li, Fighting Famine in North China: State, Market, and Environmental Decline, 1690s-1990s (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007), p.306. Central China floods of 1931 Map of Nanjing China Estimates of the total death toll range from 145,000 to between 3.7 million and 4 million. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012. Guilty of Indigence: The Urban Poor in China, 1900-1953 . At that time no one knew whether the water would subside or rise even higher. Conditions such as dysentery, typhoid, and cholera, were disseminated directly through contaminated water or through insect vectors. The 1931 Flood in China: An Economic Survey. Kathryn Edgerton-Tarpley. [8] The water flowing through the Yangtze reached its highest level since record-keeping began in the mid-nineteenth century. Shuili Those who survived the initial hazard of inundation found themselves facing a severe subsistence crisis. Hongan Xianzhi (Gazetteer of Hongan County). At the time of the floods, China was attacking itself. This is based the figure published in the first few pages of The Report of the National Flood Relief Commission, 1931-1932. Even in a country like Republican China, where refugee crises were an all too familiar occurrence, the scale of displacement caused by the flood was exceptional. Flood-related famine and epidemic diseases lasted until at least the summer of 1932, whilst those infected with endemic diseases continued to suffer the effects of the flood years after the disaster had abated. The city of Nanjing, then the capital of Republican China, was also severely affected by the disaster. There was no warning, only a sudden great wall of water. Outside the People’s Republic, O. Edmund Clubb’s Twentieth Century China contained one of the only analyses of the 1931 disaster. Whilst the roots of the 1931 flood lay in a slowly unfolding pattern of environmental history, the proximate cause of the disaster was extremely high levels of precipitation. Generous National and International charitable response, with overseas Chinese communities providing particularly large 1931 china floods map and Weibin... Yet the first Wife and other stories Lauri Paltemaa dysentery, and schistosomiasis seven Centuries Violence. 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