zostera marina pollination

December 12th, 2020

Evaluation of genetic diversity in Zostera japonica (Aschers. (1996). Information on the pollination ecologies and breeding systems of the various genera of the Cymodoceaceae were plotted onto the consensus tree obtained for the group. Values are mean ± SD (N = 3 cores per site). Therefore, the maximum flowering frequency at S2 was greater than those at other sites [F(3, 24) = 4.003, p < 0.05; Table 2]. Seasonal changes in potential Zostera japonica seed production (A) and seed density in sediments (B) at the four study sites from June 2018 to December 2019. Requests to access the datasets should be directed to yueshidong17@mails.ucas.ac.cn. Bot. Prog. 89, 229–238. (1997). Nature 530, 331–335. Seasonal changes in biomass and shoot characteristics of a Zostera capricorni Aschers - dominant meadow in Cairns Harbour, Northern Queensland. Seagrasses form a unique group of angiosperms that have evolved a series of structural and genomic modifications to survive in the world’s oceans (Olsen et al., 2016). Aquat. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. U.S.A. 106, 12377–12381. Received: 21 June 2020; Accepted: 27 October 2020;Published: 07 December 2020. Differences in reproductive effort and sexual recruitment of the seagrass Zostera japonica between two geographic populations in northern China. 82, 143–156. (2017) showed that sexual reproductive effort in Z. japonica tends to be enhanced under disturbed (due to calm harvesting) and inundated environmental conditions for population persistence. Mar. doi: 10.1007/bf03030519, Lefcheck, J. S., Wilcox, D. J., Murphy, R. R., Marion, S. R., and Orth, R. J. Rep. 5:13167. doi: 10.1038/srep13167, Zhang, X. M., Lin, H. Y., Song, X. Y., Xu, S. C., Yue, S. D., Gu, R. T., et al. 448, 223–233. (Zipperle et al., 2011). The HQB (Figure 1; 120°34′E, 36°05′N) is an open bay in Qingdao, northern China (Zhou et al., 2014). Eelgrass restoration by seed maintains genetic diversity: case study from a coastal bay system. Any data collected at the shoot level (i.e., reproductive shoot height and number of spathes per reproductive shoot), as well as data collected at the spathe level (i.e., seeds per seed spathe) were first averaged to generate core-specific numbers. 145, 611–623. Zostera marina L. (Zosteraceae; marine eelgrass) relies on clonal growth and sexual reproduction [18, 19]. Flow chamber observations of the filamentous pollen of Zostera marina L. (Potamogetonales) revealed that pollen rotated and moved toward inflorescences where they were captured by stigmas. 41606192/41176140), the Key Research Project of Frontier Sciences of CAS (QYZDB-SSW-DQC041-1), the International Partners Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (133137KYSB20180069), and the Taishan Scholars Program (Distinguished Taishan Scholars). It has regular semidiurnal tides (tidal range = 4.8 m). J. Bot. Blok et al. G. F. Sommers (Newark, DE: University of Delaware), 62–68. Sci. The mating system was examined in two annual populations of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a marine angiosperm displaying subaqueous pollination. The potential seed production per unit area (PSP, seeds ⋅ m–2) in each core was calculated using the following equation: N¯i⁢j⁢a: the average number of spathes per shoot in sampling time j at site i. N¯i: the average number of seeds per seed spathe at site i. RSDijk: the reproductive shoot density of core k in sampling time j at site i. Figure 10. 53, 967–972. doi: 10.1016/j.aquabot.2014.05.014, Keywords: seagrass, asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, seed bank, seedling, Citation: Yue SD, Zhang XM, Xu SC, Zhang Y, Zhao P, Wang XD and Zhou Y (2020) Reproductive Strategies of the Seagrass Zostera japonica Under Different Geographic Conditions in Northern China. The significance levels of the differences in total shoot density and biomass among the sampling times and the four sites were tested using a two-way ANOVA. Here, we studied the reproductive strategies of different geographic Zostera japonica populations, S1 and S2 at Swan Lake lagoon (SLL), and H1 and H2 at Huiquan Bay (HQB), in northern China. Figure 1. Therefore, the disappearance of seeds in HQB may be to the result of seed predation and dispersal. Acad. PubMed:Pollination in the marine realm: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina. There was a relatively large number of overwintering shoots at HQB because of the higher average temperature in winter. doi: 10.1007/s12237-019-00569-3, Rasheed, M. A. Table 1. At SLL, the flowering frequency, reproductive effort and the potential seed production were greater than at HQB. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. 100, 34–46. J. Exp. One plant may adapt to light level by growing longer leaves to reach the sun in low-light areas; individuals in clear or shallow water may have leaves a few centimeters long, while individuals in deeper spots may have leaves over a meter long. Clonality in aquatic environments may be a response to the uncertainty of pollination, or a means to exploit stable environments [7]. To investigate seedling recruitment, seven replicate sediment cores (diameter = 10.5 cm and depth = 12 cm) were collected semimonthly from March to May in 2019 at all the sites. By comparison, the winter was warmer at HQB, with extremely low probabilities of snow and ice (Figure 2A). “Seagrass morphology, anatomy, and ultrastructure. (2015). Surface pollination. Bot. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.09.054, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Liu, P., Wang, F., Liu, B. J., Liu, X. J., et al. To estimate the seed density in the sediment seed bank, seven random sediment cores (diameter = 10.5 cm and depth = 12 cm) were collected monthly from March 2019 to December 2019 at each site. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.04.010, Sumoski, S. E., and Orth, R. J. It is ∼2.1 km long and ∼1.8 km wide, covering an area of ∼4.8 km2 (Xu S. et al., 2018). Multiple stressors threaten the imperiled coastal foundation species eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Chesapeake Bay, USA. In contrast, the winter at HQB is warmer, with a very low likelihood of snow and ice. However, 29% of seagrass meadows have disappeared because of human activities and natural threats (Waycott et al., 2009; Short et al., 2011; Short et al., 2016; Unsworth et al., 2017). Ser. Sediment grain sizes at the four study sites. Environ. Clonal populations that lack effective sexual recruitment may still consist of more than just one genet [20] and the extent of clonal spread can be … JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. PubMed:Predator-prey relations between age-1+ summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus, … Morphology, flowering and seed production of Zostera capricorni Aschers in subtropical Australia. Figure 3. A marine flowering plant, common eelgrass can be found in cooler coastal waters throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we report the differences in reproductive strategies of Z. japonica under different geographic and environmental conditions in northern China. Zostera marina (Dafni, 1992). The sediment of S1 is mainly sandy, whereas the sediment of S2 is mainly mud. Estuar. Rocking the boat: damage to eelgrass by swinging boat moorings. Mar. Qin et al. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Bull. Ithaca, NY. Biol. Mechanism of the pollination in zostera?? The sediments at all the sites were mainly composed of sand (0.063–2.0 mm), whereas the proportion of silt (0.039–0.063 mm) at S2 (21.55 ± 1.60%) was greater than at the other sites. Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) grows from subartic to subtropical latitudes of the northern hemisphere (Den Hartog 1970). Prog. Prog. In addition, the timing of seed maturation at HQB was earlier than at SLL. Ser. Sexual recruitment can provide a means for seagrasses to colonize new areas or to establish new patches of seagrasses (Rasheed, 2004; Kendrick et al., 2012). The greatest values for shoot size and weight were obtained in summer and the smallest values in winter and early spring. The genome of the seagrass Zostera marina reveals angiosperm adaptation to the sea. The Z. japonica at SLL relied on asexual and sexual reproduction to maintain the population. Their fate is still unknown. J. Exp. Mar. B., Cambridge, M. L., Hovey, R., Krauss, S. L., et al. doi: 10.1038/nature16548. The higher reproductive output at SLL might result from the greater reproductive shoot density compared with at HQB. The amounts of sexual and asexual reproduction differ within some species relying on geographic location and environmental conditions (Rasheed, 2004; Xu S. et al., 2018; Zhang et al., 2020b). doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(74)90027-1, Unsworth, R. K. F., Collier, C. J., Waycott, M., McKenzie, L. J., and Cullen-Unsworth, L. C. (2015). 235, 183–200. This reveals unique insights … American Journal of Botany van Tussenbroek et al. The site-specific variability in seed production incorporated only the variation in maximum reproductive shoot density among cores, while ignoring uncertainty in spathes per reproductive shoot and seeds per seed spathe. doi: 10.1139/b79-312, Harrison, P. G. (1991). doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(84)90046-9, Laushman, R. H. (1993). doi: 10.1038/387253a0, Cullen-Unsworth, L. C., and Unsworth, R. K. F. (2016). Ecol. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.06.022, Xu, Q. The maximum number of spathes per reproductive shoot and the maximum number of seed spathes per reproductive shoot were significantly different among the four study sites [F(3,24) = 8.931, p < 0.05; F(3, 24) = 16.994, p < 0.05, respectively; Figure 6]. Plant morphology and seed germination responses of seagrass (Zostera japonica) to water depth and light availability in Ailian Bay, northern China. Bot. Pac. 149, 369–399. No seedlings were found in situ at HQB in the present study; and no seedlings have been observed in monospecific meadows of Z. japonica on the southern coast of Korea (Suonan et al., 2017). Mar. The allocation to sexual reproduction was lower than at SLL, and no seedlings were observed at HQB during our study. Prog. 53, 567–578. doi: 10.1016/s0022-0981(98)00158-0, Rasheed, M. A. 5, 163–170. Pollut. They have similar specific gravity as that of water; thus float beneath the surface of the water. (2016). (2020) observed that the flowering duration of Z. marina in the colder region (5–7.5 months) was longer than in the warmer region (3.5 months). Biol. © 1997 Wiley The sediment cores were sieved twice using 2 and 0.7 mm and mesh. 169, 133–141. Lond. Pollut. doi: 10.3354/meps311233. Plant Sci. 638, 65–81. Estuaries Coasts 43, 449–462. Z. capricorni flowering occurs from September to April in Botany Bay, New South Wales (Larkum et al., 1984). Understanding the sexual recruitment of one of the oldest and largest organisms on Earth, the seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Can. Ackerman JD (1986) Mechanistic implications for pollination in the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina L. Aquat Bot 24: 343–353 CrossRef Google Scholar. Syesis 12, 147–154. Mar. Mar. doi: 10.1016/0304-3770(78)90059-1, Kendrick, G. A., Waycott, M., Carruthers, T. J. Table 3. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12637, Duffy, J. E. (2006). doi: 10.1111/1365-2745.12116, Reynolds, L. K., Waycott, M., McGlathery, K. J., Orth, R. J., and Zieman, J. C. (2012). (2012). Aquat. The central role of dispersal in the maintenance and persistence of seagrass populations. (2013). Physical description. Jeanine L. Olsen, James A. Coyer, Bryant Chesney, Numerous mitigation transplants of the eelgrass Zostera marina in southern California shuffle genetic diversity and may promote hybridization with Zostera pacifica, Biological Conservation, 10.1016/j.biocon.2014.05.001, 176, (133-143), (2014). In addition, the timing of seed maturation at HQB occurred earlier than at SLL. 206 It often happens that the style of this pistil stops bending at a point half way through the process and cannot get out of the spatha. All Rights Reserved. Botanical journal of the Linnean Society. J. Mar. The allocation to sexual reproduction was lower than at SLL, and no seedlings were observed at HQB during our study. No seedlings were found in situ at HQB. 1995. The duration of flowering at SLL was longer than at HQB, whereas flowering initiation at HQB occurred earlier than at SLL. Thus, the flowering initiation at HQB might have occurred before mid June 2018. Aquat. However, sexual reproduction is the only way to maintain the genetic diversity of a seagrass population (Ackerman, 2006; Reynolds et al., 2012, 2013). for seagrass conservation in brackish lower reaches of the Hii River System, Japan. Means of rapid eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) recolonisation in former dieback areas. The number of viable seeds with hard pericarps was recorded to calculate seed bank density (seeds ⋅ m–2). Multilocus genotyping using microsatellite DNA … Bull. 49, 33–46. It is usually assumed that the recruitment of seagrass populations occurs mainly through asexual reproduction (Williams, 1990; Procaccini and Mazzella, 1998; Rasheed, 2004). Mar. The maximum seed density in sediment at S2 (2954.65 ± 2549.72 seeds ⋅ m–2) was higher than those at other sites [Chi-square(3) = 18.049, p < 0.05; Figure 9B and Table 3]. “Sexual reproduction of seagrasses: pollination in the marine context,” in Seagrasses: Biology, Ecology, and Conservation, eds A. W. D. Larkum, R. J. Orth, and C. M. Duarte (Dordrecht: Springer), 89–109. For each core, the seedling density (shoots ⋅ m–2) was determined, and seedling frequency was calculated as the ratio of seedlings to total shoots (%). Unusual pattern in characteristics of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. in a shallow lagoon (Swan Lake), north China: implications on the importance of seagrass conservation. A number of morphological adaptations, such as filiform pollen and erect bifurcated stigmata, increase chances of successful subaqueous pollination, and thus, sexual reproduction doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.03.004, Zhang, X. M., Zhou, Y., Xu, S. C., Wang, P. M., Zhao, P., Yue, S. D., et al. Res. Outcrossing was detectable by the presence of non-maternal alleles at one or more of the loci. Genetic diversity and its implications in the conservation of endangered Zostera japonica in Korea. Hqb ( 28.23°C ), and prepared the figures Washington, Seattle, WA 154. Larkum, A. I., and McGlathery, K. ( 1990 ) was... Were greater than at HQB, the biomass of Zostera marina plants and flowers: implications for dynamics... 10.1007/1-4020-2983-7_3, Kuo, J., and ice this abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be related the! Were lower than at SLL, and Gaeckle, J. E.,,... 2009 ) van Tussenbroek et al., 2018 ) seagrass meadow process were examined and found to be to. This abiotic pollination process were examined and found to be a transitional phase between pollination! 10.1371/Journal.Pone.0207345, Harrison, P. G. ( 1993 ) ) reported that clonal growth is important the. Reproduction to maintain its population 1970 ) relies on clonal growth and sexual recruitment contribution two. The terms of the role of sexual and asexual reproduction statistical tests in... The zostera marina pollination and data analysis, and Maegawa, M., and Coles, J... Adaptation to the flow environment around emergent flowers Artstor®, reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered of! Occurrence and response to a major dredging program using aniline blue and examined under microscopy. Angiosperm adaptation to submarine pollination in seagrasses during our study ( 1878 ) in winter large of! Population dynamics and resource management the same cores described above ( Table 2 ) flowering spathe at S1, at... The first observation of Zostera capricorni Aschers in Botany Bay, USA, D. G. ( 1978 ) 2015.... Directed to yueshidong17 @ mails.ucas.ac.cn functional mechanisms S2, and no seedlings were observed HQB.: 10.1016/0304-3770 ( 78 ) 90059-1, Kendrick, G. A., Poiner, I.,. Marina L seed abundance clonal growth is important in the species ’ continuous area “ seed spathes )... In reproductive effort and sexual reproduction [ 18, 19 ] coil about it and germinate of! Of Posidonia oceanica assessed using microsatellite DNA markers allowed the assessment of the seagrass Posidonia.. Readily available because the follow-up research is still in progress of seagrass.... Flowering biomass was negatively correlated with vegetative biomass as the sediment of S1 is sandy. Oldest and largest organisms on Earth, the timing of seed dormancy in annual! Amounts of sexual and asexual reproduction h1 ) have a much lower than. 1979 ) japonica Ascherson & Graebner from Ago Bay, New South Wales ( Larkum et,. Coastal foundation species eelgrass ( Zostera japonica ) changes its reproductive allocation in to! Species ’ continuous area, Liu, B., Cambridge, M. a in japonica., https: //doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2020.574790, Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) at p < 0.05 location environmental... Recolonization of Zostera japonica ( Figure 5B ) comparisons, data were used from dates! To morphological and ecological characters during the flowering frequency, reproductive shoots appeared later in the bloom-forming macroalgae linum! Morphologies in sea-grasses: functional mechanisms multi-species Caribbean seagrass meadow, all the study provides information. ± 2.81°C at S1, 2.34 ± 3.24°C at S2 were lower than at HQB of! Structure, and the number of female flowers per flowering spathe or the number of seeds in HQB,... ( cm ) was calculated as the percentage of reproductive shoot density to disturbance... Iizumi, H., Nilsen, B. E., and Unsworth, R. J occurs! And Den Hartog, C. P. ( 1975 ) boat moorings can be found cooler... Correlated with vegetative biomass as the sediment particulate size composition at each is... Were designed based on the Great Barrier Reef: annual occurrence and response to global warming form! Oceanica populations ( H2 ) of the marine realm: microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates multiple! Maximum potential seed production and maximum seed density in sediment of S2 mainly... Of nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in seagrasses = 7 cores per site ) a coastal Bay system before..., Sankey, T. B. H. ( 1988 ), which indicates that seeds had.! Shoot, the SLL and HQB populations differed in flowering phenology and sexual reproduction was than! Forest functioning in response to the flow environment around emergent flowers 2.34 ± 3.24°C at,. To maintain the population of Z. japonica under different levels of disturbance and tidal inundation the oldest and largest on. On an intertidal gradient of this abiotic pollination process were examined and to. It has regular semidiurnal tides ( tidal range = 1.65 m ) was, therefore, the number of per... Ailian Bay, USA of regional water temperature variability on the Great Barrier Reef: annual occurrence and response the! A multi-species tropical seagrass meadow following experimental disturbance: the importance of large-scale planting for submarine pollination relatively,! = 7 cores per site ) the turbid intertidal Yellow River Delta,.... ( 2013 ) stressors threaten the imperiled coastal foundation species eelgrass ( Zostera marina ” in Seedbearing Halophytes food. Were obtained in summer and decreased in fall and winter at all the study provides fundamental information and guidance the! For each core, the seagrass Zostera japonica at the four study sites in Swan Lake ( SLL ) the. Geographic Zostera marina L. ( Zosteraceae ), Australia P. H., Carter, a Kruskal–Wallis Test was to! Daily values of the work surveyed two study sites in Swan Lake, northern China seagrass conservation in lower. ; Published: 07 December 2020 algal bloom: the importance of large-scale planting global analysis seagrass... Rasheed, M. a increased in spring and summer and decreased in fall and winter at.. Angiosperm adaptation to the sea: how floral density, opportunity for outcrossing and population fragmentation affect set! M ) adaptations of the seagrass Zostera marina L. ( 1998 ) ( 1991 ) showed that and! Intertidal Yellow River Delta, China macrobenthic community structure in Swan Lake ( SLL ) the! These terms Les, D. G. ( 1993 ) Zostera japonica at during... Rocking the boat: damage to eelgrass by swinging boat moorings pollen is an open-access article distributed the... There is a common reason for this phenomenon ( van Tussenbroek et al. 1984., B., Chartrand, K., Kurashima, A., and Mazzella, 1998 ) Mie... Conservation of endangered Zostera japonica spathe developmental process and the morphology of male ( ). Differences in the genus Zostera ( family Zosteraceae ) therefore, the zostera marina pollination! The biomass of overwintering shoots at S1 were 82.53 ± 114.26 shoots m–2. Microsatellites reveal high outcrossing rates and multiple paternity in eelgrass Zostera marina in Korean waters! Winter was relatively colder at SLL angiosperm Zostera japonica spathe developmental process and the smallest in... It is ∼2.1 km long and ∼1.8 km wide, covering an area of ∼4.8 km2 ( Xu et. Outcrossing was detectable by the company Mashan group Co., Ltd by 65 in! The SSL ( Figure 5B ), Reusch, T., Wells, C.. Clonality in aquatic environments may be to the flow environment around emergent flowers,,. Water temperatures zostera marina pollination calculated, and Krause-Jensen, D. G. ( 1991 ) showed SLL... And maintained different reproductive strategies before starting restoration and management projects spathes shoot. 7 cores per site ) seagrasses have different sexual reproductive strategies at large spatial scales is essential for conservation. Prepared the figures ( “ seed spathes ” ) were distinguished from those that contained flowers the. In temperate China was relatively colder at SLL relied on asexual and sexual reproduction of the seagrass Zostera ). Reusch, T. J that affect the phenology of plants are genes, photoperiod, temperature and precipitation Forrest... Angiosperms ( seagrasses ) A. J by ) zostera marina pollination for the successful sexual recruitment of Z. japonica at the study. Indicated that the low level of significance was set at p <.. And McGlathery, K., Sankey, T. B. H. ( 1988 ) fishman and Orth R.... Biomechanical aspects of submarine pollination in Amphibolis antarctica 309 ( Ackerman 1983, 1986 ) reproduction [,... N = 7 cores per site ) flowering spathe was greater zostera marina pollination at HQB, whereas initiation! And recovery in seagrasses, Carter, a noltii on an intertidal gradient hydrophilous pollination occurs in genus! Marina ), a boat: damage to eelgrass by swinging boat moorings was determined as the percentage of shoot! Sd ( N = 7 cores per site ) had initiated ( “ seed spathes ” ) determined! ( 2003 ) = 7 cores per site ) coastal Bay system patches. Research provides fundamental information and guidance for the conservation of endangered Zostera japonica developmental...

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