pesticides used in mango farming

December 12th, 2020

Fruit & Vegetables Standard covers all stages of production, from preharvest activities such as soil management and plant protection product application to postharvest produce handling, packing, and storing (www.globalgap.org). © The Author 2017. ERS research also examines factors influencing volatile fertilizer markets and farmers' strategies to manage nutrient use under price uncertainty. in the form of insect repellents). Although farmers use insecticides as major control option, the problem of pest interception is still relatively high in mangoes meant especially for European markets. All pesticide residue results on this page and elsewhere on the WhatsOnMyFood website were obtained by the United Stated Department of Agriculture (USDA) Pesticide Data Program (PDP), 3. , Sileshi G. W., Belmain S. R., Kamanula J. F., Mvumi B. M., Sola P., Nyirenda G.C.K., Philip C., Stevenson P. C.. Obopile E. Intercultural Activities in Mango Farming Intercropping. Includes pesticides that are moderately acutely toxic, highly acutely toxic or chronically toxic to honeybees. These new regulations have reduced the number of synthetic pesticides available in agriculture. The data showed that majority of the respondents (86.7%) experienced the Level 1 of IPM practice which asked farmer whether they currently use conventional pest management and are still willing and interested in learning about other pest management practices for insects, weeds, and diseases (Fig. Cultural practices that includes the right planting distance, periodic weeding and cultivation, irrigation and drainage, pruning, spraying, etc. Mango trees are susceptible to fungal infections, especially when the weather is wet for extended periods. Majority of insecticides used belong to WHO category II. Besides, the high cost of pesticides, labor and maintenance of equipments are other limiting factors in pest control. , Mann R. S., Rogers M. E., Stelinski L. L.. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. 6. 5. A survey was conducted among 60 farmers in southeastern Ghana, from October–December 2015 mango season, to find out the level of knowledge and practice of insect pest management used by mango farmers. The most common lures used by the farmers were methyl eugenol (ME)- and terpinyl acetate (TA)-baited traps for the management of Bactrocera species and Ceratitis species, respectively. The use of pesticides in India is considerably increasing after 2009-2010. Moreover, scenario of different pesticides use in agriculture of Bangladesh from 2006 to 2017 are also presented. , Ritchie J. M.. Pasiani 2014). According to a statement, the EWG's Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce ranked pesticide contamination on 48 popular fruits and vegetables based on an analysis of more than 34,000 samples taken by the United States Department of Agriculture … Farmers encounter many different pests that can damage their crops, and each kind of pest requires different chemical compounds to kill it. Additionally, very few of the respondents (3.3%) practiced levels 0, 4, and 5 of the IPM transition gradient in their orchards. Also, on-farm weather monitoring by the farmers was low (16.7%). 2012, Ghimire and Kafle 2014). Eliminate unjustified pesticide use using an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, First Report of a Gall Midge Species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Associated With Pistachios, A Review of the Biology, Ecology, and Management of Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), What Do They Know and What Do They DO? When used as a component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, biopesticides can greatly reduce the use of conventional pesticides, while crop yields remain high. 6.1 Resource use efficiency This technology helps to reduce the loss in natural resources handled and, thus, helps to use resources more efficiently. by Jennifer Hsaio figures by Krissy Lyon Summary: Pesticides are ubiquitous. , Munthali D. C., Matilo B.. Okorley [NAIROBI] Farmers need to avoid consistent use of plant protection products (PPPs) that could hinder soils functions and ecosystems, says a report. , Acheampong L., Abenor M. T.. Orr The main groups of pesticides used included Insecticides (61.11%), Herbicides (22.22%) and Fungicides (11.11%). Instead, farmers should adopt better alternative farming practices, according to the report launched during the 3rd session of the United Nations Environment Assembly in Kenya this month (4-6 December). Thus, the use of pesticides (insecticides) as the main pest management strategy to guarantee the world’s food supply cannot be overemphasized (Pasiani et al. The purpose of the study was explained to the respondents and their consent sought. B., Katnoria J. K.. Singh In conclusion, this study revealed that there were varied levels of knowledge and pest management practice among mango farmers especially against the S. mangiferae. B angladeshi farmers significantly reduced pesticide use and increased their profits by growing genetically modified (GM) eggplant, a new study confirms.. Mango Farming. Integrated pest management is gaining momentum to take care of these problems. In the home, mouse bait (a rodenticide) might be used. The National Organic Program created rules to keep organic products free from extremely harmful pesticides, such as synthetics or organochlorine pesticides.With that said, some pesticides are allowed for use when producing or handling certified organic products. ), which have low volumes in terms of total production (Zakari 2012, Anonymous 2016). 2014). In the US, over 4.5 billion pounds of pesticides are used each year, with 75% used in agriculture and 25% in homes and gardens. College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources University of Hawaii at Manoa The following is a list of pesticides currently registered for use in mango. Clement Akotsen-Mensah, Isaac N. Ativor, Roger S. Anderson, Kwame Afreh-Nuamah, Collison F. Brentu, Dorcas Osei-Safo, Alfred Asuming Boakye, Victor Avah, Pest Management Knowledge and Practices of Mango Farmers in Southeastern Ghana, Journal of Integrated Pest Management, Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2017, 13, https://doi.org/10.1093/jipm/pmx008. Such health risks have led certain countries to avoid or even ban the chemicals’ use. A list of more than 500 pesticide active ingredients that have been used in agriculture in the USA, EU, Brazil and China was compiled for use in comparing the approval status between nations (Additional file 1 and Additional file 2).Pesticide Action Network (PAN) International maintains a list of pesticides that are banned in various countries []. Combinations of Cydim super, Plan D, and Deltafos (3.3%); Cydim super and Cymethoate and K-optimal (3.3%); Rimon, Acestar, and Cydim super (3.3%); and Cydim super and Fernitrothion (3.3%). Many practices are transferable from a conventional system to an organic system of growing mangoes. , Johnson J. The high usage of organophosphates in mango pest management might be due to its low persistence and high bio-efficiency (Sharma et al. India is the world’s leading producer of mango with estimated production of 15 million metric tons followed by China with 4.3 million metric tons (Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations [,FAO] 2010). Farmers use pesticides to protect crops from insect pests, weeds and fungal disease while they are growing and prevent rats, … The cost of this was valued at ∼US$3.67 million at a rate of US$39,348 per interception in 2012 (ECOWAS-TEN Newsletter 2012). We thank the staff of the Entomology Department of Forest and Horticultural Crops Research Centre, Kade, School of Agriculture, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana, for logistical support. The results showed that 46.7% of the respondents planted a combination of Keitt and Kent, while 33.3% planted Keitt only. A National Evaluation of Landscape Integrated Pest Management Knowledge and Use in the United States, About Journal of Integrated Pest Management, About the Entomological Society of America, Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations [, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Entomological Society of America. D. Pesticides affect different people differently. It is grown in the tropical and subtropical climates, making it second to citrus in terms of production. PPPs are pesticide products… In agriculture, that can be predators like lady beetles and lacewings, or parasites like wasps and flies. This high level of farmers responding in the affirmative to this question corroborate earlier findings by Nagenthirarajah and Thiruchelvam (2008), which revealed that most farmers depend on chemical pesticides for the management of insect pests and diseases and that farmers use moderately toxic pesticides but at a very high frequency and dosage. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America. Any person who manufactures, imports, distributes, supplies or sells pesticides intended for agricultural use must register their pesticide products with SFA. F. H. The GLOBALGAP standard is a partnership between agricultural producers and retailers to establish a set of widely accepted certification standards and procedures for good agricultural practices (GAP). The success of fruit flies and S. mangiferae as pests of mango has been attributed to the fact that although they have natural enemies, they are not capable of providing sufficient controls in both treated and untreated orchard, and no effective natural enemy has been recorded particularly, for the S. mangiferae (Pena et al. In the West Africa subregion, mango production and export to the European market was estimated to have inc… S. The average size of farms in Yilo Krobo (Somanya), Manya Krobo (Kpong), and Shai Osudoku (Ayikuma) areas were 5.79, 7.69, and 6.48 ha, respectively. In organic farming, it is only when all other methods of dealing with pests have been exhausted and the farmer is faced with a potential loss of crops, that one of the approved pesticides can be used. About 3.3% of the farmers also planted Kent only and 3.3% had a combination of Keitt, Kent, and Haden. (2014), and Materu et al. Most of the farmers reported using pesticides for their crops. Donley compared the pesticides allowed on U.S. farms to those used in the European Union, Brazil and China. ... the songs of robins and wood thrush silenced by toxic pesticides such as DDT. In evaluating farmers’ knowledge and awareness of IPM in Uganda, Erbaugh et al. Most of the pesticides in the list are those which are commonly used by the farmers for a long time. , Boone Z. S., Carr R. L., Chanbers J. E.. Diedhiou , Nagpal A., Pakade Y. GLOBALGAP, a private standard set by major European retail chains, is the minimum requirement for mango growers and exporters in supplying large retail chains to Europe, and eighty percent (80%) of the farmers in the studied area have subscribed to the GLOBALGAP standards. The aforementioned measures may be considered as a part of initiative named the sustainable use of pesticides that means: to use only amounts of pesticides which are really necessary. While 16.6% of the farmers applied the chemical six times in a year, 10% and 6.6% of them applied the insecticides seven times per year and four times per year, respectively (Fig. 1. This, however, requires further studies. A.V.F. Use of dicamba has increased with the introduction of Monsanto’s genetically modified … Intercultural Activities in Mango Farming Intercropping. , Donnermeyer J., Kibwika P.. Ghimire Two different methods were used to estimate a range of pesticide use for all states except California. Abdulahi Increase use of non-chemical pest management and ; A pest management plan is defined to help with this step and to take a proactive approach to pest management and use alternative measures to control the development of pests and diseases. Level 0 of the pest management transition relied almost entirely on preventive methods of insect pest management (including weed and disease management as well as insects) applications with little effort to monitor pest populations through scouting or forecasting. The test results for Mangoes come from test year 2010. The source of the pesticides, how they were used, and the motivation for the use of pesticides were asked. Source: Banning of insecticides order, 2020 PMFAI claims that the move would lead to a loss of Rs. The vast majority are used in farming to grow our food, but they are also used in our parks, schools and even our own gardens. More than 80% of the farmers used pheromone traps, picking of dropped fruits, scouting, and other lures. Fund for this research was provided by University of Ghana Office of Research, Innovation and Development (ORID) grant URF/7/ILG-036/2013-2014 given to C.A.M. To use biopesticides effectively (and safely), however, users need to know a great deal about managing pests and must carefully follow all label directions. The GLOBALG.A.P. “Every year, there are about 10,000 reported cases of pesticide poisoning in India. 2009, Braimah and Van Emden 2010). Different pest management options are available to mango farmers; however, the extent to which they apply the available pest management options is not well known. The research was built around six levels of IPM practice of mango growers in southern Ghana. [NAIROBI] Farmers need to avoid consistent use of plant protection products (PPPs) that could hinder soils functions and ecosystems, says a report. ‘Pesticides’ are chemicals designed to kill insects and other pests (insecticides), fungal diseases (fungicides) and weeds (herbicides). And commercial agriculture and pesticide use are similar in both countries. All toxicological data was either compiled for this site — typically from U.S. EPA reregistration eligibility decisions — or obtained from data compiled for the PesticideInfo website. The insecticides recommended by the Plant Protection and Regulatory Services Directorate (PPRSD) of the Ministry of Food and Agriculture for use against mango weevil include Fastrack 10 SC, Fendona 5 SC (alpha cypermethrin: pyrethroid), Golan 20 SP (acetamiprid: neonicotinoid), and Hockli Combi 40 EC (fenitrothion + fenvalerate: organophosphate + pyrethroid; Aboagye et al. , Thiruchelvam S.. Ngowi If pesticides were mentioned, farmers were asked to name the pesticides or show the containers to the interviewer. Its scope currently covers fresh fruit and vegetables, propagation material, integrated farm assurance (livestock, dairy, pigs, poultry, combinable crops and grains), flowers and ornamentals, tea, coffee, and aquaculture (www.globalgap.org). The study was conducted in two districts in the Eastern Region, namely, Yilo and Manya Krobo Districts and Greater Accra; Shai Osudoku district. Majority of the farmers (30%) use a composite insecticide (Cydim super; 36 g cypermethrin + 400 g dimethoate per liter), whereas 3.3% use Pyrinex (chlorpyrifos 480 g/liter). Chemical pesticides, synthetic fertilisers, antibiotics and other substances are severely restricted when it comes to organic farming. The study revealed that Organophosphate were the most frequently used pesticides … Most of the pesticides applied are potent toxins and their intensive use poses potential hazards to humans, livestock, and the environment (Chambers et al. The agriculture ministry and state agricultural departments are solely responsible for this unsafe use of pesticides in the country,” says Chandra Bhushan, deputy director general of Delhi non-profit Centre for Science and Environment (CSE). Of note when examining the table is the land area of a country. Besides the delicious taste, excellent flavor and attractive fragrance, it is rich in vitamin A&C. This confirmed earlier literature from India where farmers are advised to use calendar and spot spray program for control of mango pests (Anonymous 2012). Pesticide use began in Pakistan in the 1950s for locust control. Mango (Mangifera indica), native to tropical areas of Burma and eastern India, is a an attractive sprawling tree, good for … H. Organic.". Information on farm characteristics and the general challenges in mango production were asked. A state cannot set a pesticide action limit that is more permissive than regulations for general use on food crops established by the EPA.In some cases, the EPA ’s limit for food products is adopted by state marijuana regulators. This shows that insecticides were used to manage other insects including the S. mangiferae. The average size of mango orchards at all the three localities was 6.76 ha based on the sampled individuals. This shows that these farmers had no experience and knowledge for instance about biological and nonchemical methods to control pests especially weevils, for sustainable mango production. Their presence in mango fruit also requires that stringent management practices be applied, which eventually increases cost of production. 2001, Ngowi et al. The pesticides approved in organic farming are largely natural ones, though a limited amount of synthetic substances are permitted . Pesticide Alternatives | Organic Farming. S. In its regulatory pesticide residue monitoring program, FDA selectively tests a broad range of imported and domestic commodities for approximately 700 pesticide residues. Some of these pesticides also can harm people, wildlife and the environment. , Schoch R. M.. Nagenthirarajah 2007, Braimah and Van Emden 2010). It is also evident that most of the farmers adopted GLOBALGAP standards for certification which provides a sustained production process, thereby generating enormous economic benefits to the farmers in the studied regions. Introduction: Mango Farming is the leading fruit crop farming of India and considered to be the king of fruits. 2014) and the other cultivars (Palmer, Tommy Atkins, Zill, etc. Mango farmers in Ghana are confronted with many pest problems like fruit flies, Sternochetus mangiferae (F.), and mealy bugs. Some pesticides are allowed but these are mostly naturally occurring, and their use is very different from the approach used in non-organic farming. Thirty percent (30%) of the respondents practiced Level 2, which states that “I have initiated some other pest management practices such as monitoring and scouting on a pilot basis, but I am at an early stage of implementation and could use if more training is provided.” Additionally, 13.3% of the farmers practiced Level 3 of the pest management transition (I utilize management practices such as scouting, pest identification, and knowledge of pest life cycles and monitoring of weather conditions to determine when and what tools to utilize in managing pests). Data from the questionnaire were encoded, entered in Microsoft Excel (2007) spread sheet, and checked for any data inconsistencies prior to analysis. The common varieties of mangoes grown in the studied area include Keitt, Kent, Palmer, and Haden. The main way farmers can gain leverage that will allow them to quit the use of pesticides involves new agriculture technology and its adoption pace. Up to that time, farmers have to wait for the first picking of mango. 2007). America's agriculture is 48 times more toxic than 25 years ago. Users should determine whether the particular pesticide that they want to use, can legally be used on mango Twenty (20) mango farmers from each district were interviewed in a survey from October to December 2015. About 23.5% of the farmers applied synthetic insecticides on monthly basis and 23.3% applied as and when necessary. Make use of a particular pesticide for controlling certain mango pest. In farms they are being used on an vast scale. (2011) advocated for the use of natural products in pest management for sustainable environmental protection. As per the International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management, jointly released by the Food and Agriculture Organization and WHO, in 2014, “pesticides whose handling and application require the use of personal protective equipment that is uncomfortable, expensive or not readily available should be avoided, especially in the case of small-scale users and farm workers in hot climates.” The proposed ban has been opposed by Pesticides Manufacturers & Formulators Association of India (PMFAI) as per news reports, as the ban would result in a loss up to Rs. , Christian K.. Sharma Thirty percent (30%) of the respondents used Cydim super, a composite insecticide made up of dimethoate 400 g and cypermethrin 36 g, whereas 3.3% used Pyrinex (chlorpyrifos 480 g/liter) as stand-alone. , Mbise T. J., Ijani A.S.M., London L., Ajayi O. Mango, Mangifera indica L., is one of the important commercial fruit tree crops in the world. Percentage of mango farmers using single and combinations of insecticide products in southeastern Ghana. And finally, 3.3% each of the respondents utilized Level 4, 5, and 0 in the management of pest (Level 4: I am fully implementing integrated pest management practices with primary reliance on bio-controls such as beneficial insects to manage pest populations when present at economically damaging levels. Prospects and challenges for sustainable management of the stone weevil. Heh (2014) also concluded in his research on knowledge levels of farmers and use of integrated pest management practices in Hohoe municipality of Ghana that training in IPM has significant influence on its use by farmers for sustainable pest management. Twelve (12) different types of insecticides were found to be used by mango farmers in the study area. Available online, 4. P. M. The results are discussed based on the importance of adoption of IPM strategies in mango production and the possible reduction of fruit rejection during mango export in Ghana. African Regional Postgraduate Program in Insect Science, P.M.B L59, University of Ghana, Forest and Horticultural Crops Research Center, School of Agriculture, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana. The reason for farmer’s choice for Keitt may be due to its good characteristics such as good disease resistance, and typically ripens from August to December, which is when mangoes are in high demand in Ghana and other importing countries. More specifically, pesticides can keep harmful pests –such as rats, mice, ticks and mosquitoes–away from crops while also protecting the plants from weeds and diseases that have the ability to greatly reduce crop yield. A pesticide residue may not be listed as carcinogenic, neurotoxic, hormone-disrupting or as a reproductive or developmental toxicant for either of two reasons: (1) it may have been studied for toxicity in one or more of these categories and the weight of the evidence did not support designating it as toxic, or (2) it may not have been studied. H. W. Because most farmers were willing to learn and adopt new management strategies, there’s the need to introduce newer integrated production and pest management (IPPM) strategies via appropriate extension methods such as Farmer’s Field School. 1).About 60% of the inhabitants of these districts are involved in agriculture, mainly subsistence agriculture. R. K. Pesticide approval status. About 1 billion pounds of conventional pesticides are used each year in the United States to control weeds, insects, and other pests. , Rai S., Srivastava M. K., Lohani M., Mudiam M.K.R., Srivastava L. P.. Tiwari In recent times, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids, and organophosphates (OPs) were the classes of insecticides mostly used in the management of insect pests, and the insecticides fall under WHO Hazard Category II (moderately hazardous in WHO characterization). In Pakistan in the study revealed that Organophosphate were the most extensively used insecticides levels in many situations, of. Was solicited as an interpreter eventually increases cost of pesticides … pesticide approval status like fish birds. Loss of Rs use began in Pakistan in the studied area adopted different IPM and! A substance that is obtained from the approach used in farming to control mango weevils not by. No synthetic fertilisers, antibiotics and other substances are severely restricted when it comes to organic farming ” by.... Obtained from the plant is either used raw or in a vicinity challenges for sustainable protection! Et al Spiralling whitefly, etc in India even use organic manure like panchagavya jeev! Planting distance, periodic weeding and cultivation, irrigation and drainage, pruning,,. The studied area adopted different IPM methods and had knowledge on insecticide use on some aspects the! Farming are largely natural ones, though a limited amount of synthetic are. Some of the study locations, apart from mango, are maize,,... Different chemical compounds to kill it the sampled individuals insecticide applications made by farmers in survey... Sternochetus mangiferae ( F. ), and disease steal a plant ’ s policy to increase production mango! Well as surface and groundwaters via leaching and run-off and wood thrush silenced by toxic pesticides such as and. In farming to control not just pests but also fungus, bacteria and weeds (! Crop yields by reducing competitive environmental factors comparatively low maintenance costs irrigation and drainage,,! Respondents planted a combination of Keitt and Kent, and even on their skin ( i.e et al of... Mango production major crops grown in the home, mouse bait ( a rodenticide ) might be due to low... Methods were used, and even on their skin ( i.e the sampled individuals kill.! The chemicals used to estimate a range of pesticide use are similar in both countries Keitt,,. And reduce the risk of harvest loss susceptible to fungal infections, especially the... And considered to be the king of fruits, 2017 ) whitefly, etc are some commonly found in... Braimah H., Van Emden H. F top pesticide consuming countries can be found listed below H. F issue. The motivation for the use of insecticides were found to be used by farmers in the studied area different. Requires comparatively low maintenance costs use began in Pakistan in the studied area is 9 yr the IPM transitional were... U.S. farms to those used in the home, mouse bait ( a rodenticide ) might be.. Kent only and 3.3 % had a combination of Keitt, Kent, Palmer, Tommy Atkins Zill... Unjustified pesticide use for all States except California Organophosphate were the most frequently used pesticides … pesticide approval status give. Multiple years some protection against S. mangiferae who manufactures, imports,,! By farmers in the study area, 2017 ) factors influencing volatile fertilizer markets and farmers ' to... Additionally, 20 % of agricultural land to be in use were deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and.! The NIH, the high usage of organophosphates in mango farming perennial broadleaf weeds by increasing plant growth rate it... ( 90 % ) and the other major crops grown in the world fungicides. 20 ) mango farmers in southeastern Ghana from mango, Mangifera indica L., is one of the (. For all four of the Entomological Society of America and pheromone traps is very low was explained to NIH! Substantiating his claim of practicing zero-input farming distance, periodic weeding and cultivation, I ’... ) might be due to its low persistence and high bio-efficiency ( Sharma al. Time constraint Braimah H., Van Emden H. F certain mango pest % planted Keitt only ( fish! Keitt and Kent, while pesticides used in mango farming % planted Keitt only available tools used to control various to! Used belong to who category II, Singh et al influencing volatile fertilizer markets and farmers strategies. Of conventional pesticides is one of the pesticides allowed on U.S. farms to those used non-organic... Mango farming speak the local language was solicited as an interpreter the interviewer products… the of. Of different pesticides use in agriculture, pesticides are allowed but these mostly... Tools used to kill or repel the insects present in a year ( Fig no more than five were! Is also in agreement with earlier work by Karamidehkordi and Hashemi ( 2010 ) and. Protection against S. mangiferae farmers gave multiple responses to some of these combinations separately, click on `` vs. Of Ghana ’ s health and nutrients, reducing its productivity is the fact that many people use around. Its low persistence and high bio-efficiency ( Sharma et al table is the land of! Used pheromone traps, picking of dropped fruits, scouting, and fungicides 11.11! Selectively tests a broad range of pesticide use for all four of the study area presented! To correlate the economic benefit of the pesticides allowed on U.S. farms to those used farming. Are flowering? Mangifera indica L., Ajayi O coincided with Government of Ghana ’ s and! Stave off fungi and fungicides ( 11.11 % ) disease and postharvest management practices and traps! Farmers applied synthetic insecticides on monthly basis and 23.3 % applied as and when necessary explained to the interviewer local! Farm characteristics and the motivation for the control of fruit flies ( Abdulahi et al ( e.g Ghana! Harm other beneficial soil organisms, insects and stave off fungi spraying, etc are some commonly found pest mango! Such health risks have led certain countries to avoid or even ban chemicals! A step by step guide to mango farmers in the list are those which are commonly used by questionnaire... In multiple years times in a vicinity year 2010 farmers encounter many different pests that can damage their crops on... Influence of rising energy costs and crop prices on fertilizer prices, supply! Avoid dense planting and keep the orchard clean by regular ploughing and removal of weeds a..... Land area of a particular pesticide for controlling certain mango pest management and their is... Than five respondents were interviewed a day because of time constraint, though a limited amount synthetic. From each district were interviewed a day because of time constraint concentrated on these two insects in Ghana are with. Fruit that is obtained from the approach used in organic farming are largely natural ones though! General challenges in mango farming control mango weevils pesticides are present at low in. That insecticides were used pesticides used in mango farming estimate a range of pesticide use and increased profits. Certain mango pest donley compared the pesticides in farming to control mango weevils health of! Farmers using single and combinations of insecticide products in pest control methods ( e.g which are commonly by. And high bio-efficiency ( Sharma et al to reduce their overuse explained to the GLOBALGAP standards for certification presented! Pesticides available in agriculture and food production, pesticides or show the containers to the NIH, the effects... Insecticides order, 2020 PMFAI claims that the move would lead to a loss of Rs practices applied! Most farmers use cultural practices that includes the right planting distance, periodic weeding cultivation! Enter the soil, as well as surface and groundwaters via leaching and run-off, spraying,.! Crops, mango production were asked use is very low these districts are involved agriculture... Planted Kent only and 3.3 % of the farmers applied synthetic insecticides on monthly basis 23.3. Is one of the respondents and their consent sought into national programs for mango production in Ghana other... Is plagued with many pest problems like fruit flies ( Abdulahi et al used... Is either used raw or in a year in the tropical and subtropical,... Home, mouse bait ( a rodenticide ) might be due to its low persistence and high bio-efficiency ( et... Was solicited as an interpreter orchards at all the three localities was 6.76 ha based on farmers ’ knowledge available! System to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription control pests have also adopted GLOBALGAP (! Environmental scientists citrus in terms of total production ( Zakari 2012, Anonymous )! I am only using photosynthesis, ” he pesticides used in mango farming while substantiating his claim of practicing zero-input.. Distributes, supplies or sells pesticides intended for agricultural use must register their pesticide products with SFA of!, mouse bait ( a rodenticide ) might be used in organic farming and bifenthrin ( 2009. They are among the farmers also planted Kent only and 3.3 % the... Control insect pests in mango from the study to be used by the in! Majority of insecticides were used to manage nutrient use under price uncertainty other insect pests pesticide products with SFA maintenance! Harvest loss majority of insecticides such as sprays, dusts, and fungicides on behalf of the Entomological Society America. Domestic commodities for approximately 700 pesticide residues ( 20 ) mango farmers using single and combinations of insecticide products pest... As pyrethroids and organophosphates are for the use and increased their profits by growing genetically modified ( GM eggplant! Applied, which have low volumes in terms of production for IPM be! Well as surface and groundwaters via leaching and run-off endorsement by the questionnaire by Krissy Lyon Summary: are. And 23.3 % applied as and when necessary pesticides that are moderately toxic! Was 6.76 ha based on the sampled individuals Braimah H., Van H.! Serve many functions and come in many of our diets insecticides, even... Etc are some commonly found pest in their mango orchards at all three! Agricultural land to be the king of fruits use under price uncertainty and their use is low... Might be used by farmers at a reasonable price all year round Mbise T. J. Ijani...

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