rome after the second punic war

December 12th, 2020

[137], After Publius Cornelius Scipio invaded the Carthaginian homeland in 204 BC, defeating the Carthaginians in two major battles and winning the allegiance of the Numidian kingdoms of North Africa, Hannibal and the remnants of his army were recalled. Livy gives a fuller record, but according to Goldsworthy "his reliability is often suspect", especially with regard to his descriptions of battles; many modern historians agree, but nevertheless his is the best surviving source for this part of the war. [152] Later the same year a mutiny broke out among Roman troops, which initially attracted support from Iberian leaders, disappointed that Roman forces had remained in the peninsula after the expulsion of the Carthaginians, but it was effectively put down by Scipio. A cavalry force of 4,000 from the other Roman army was also engaged and wiped out. [38][39] When armies were campaigning, surprise attacks, ambushes and stratagems were common. [52] The immediate cause of the war was the issue of control of the independent Sicilian city state of Messana (modern Messina). The Carthaginian formation collapsed; Hannibal was one of the few to escape the field. Now Rome had a problem, for the first time in its history, soldiers had been away to war for a long period of time. The treaty between them and Hannibal can be described as an agreement of friendship, since the Capuans had no obligations. The remaining Carthaginian-controlled towns then surrendered or were taken through force or treachery[126][127] and the Sicilian grain supply to Rome and its armies was resumed. The Second Punic War was the most significant of the three conflicts fought between Rome and Carthage that are collectively known as the Punic Wars. By 214 BC, Mago and Hasdrubal had levied new forces and decided to strike first. It crippled Carthaginian power in the region, and although Carthage would experience a resurgence fifty years after the Second Punic War, it would never again challenge Rome like it did when Hannibal was parading through Italy, striking fear … Approximately 1,200 of the infantry, poorer or younger men unable to afford the armour and equipment of a standard legionary, served as javelin-armed skirmishers, known as velites. The Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack[70][71] and captured the island of Malta. [6][7] Polybius was an analytical historian and wherever possible personally interviewed participants, from both sides, in the events he wrote about. Where did its power come from? Rome was controlling the main peninsula of Italy while Carthage was controlling the islands and trade of the Mediterranean. Raising fresh troops to replace these delayed the army's departure for Iberia until September. He released the captured population and liberated the Iberian hostages held there by the Carthaginians, in an attempt to ensure the loyalty of their tribes;[147][149] although many of them were subsequently to fight against the Romans. How was it almost the equal in power to Rome? [155] Scipio gave battle to and destroyed two large Carthaginian armies. Scipio was not able to prevent Hasdrubal from leading his depleted army over the western passes of the Pyrenees into Gaul. This was a very interesting event, as it happened three times! [168] The Third Punic War began later in 149 BC when a large Roman army landed in North Africa[169] and besieged Carthage. Hasdrubal demurred, arguing that Carthaginian authority over the Iberian tribes was too fragile and the Roman forces in the area too strong for him to execute the planned movement. This was insufficient to challenge Hannibal's army in open battle, but sufficient to force him to concentrate his forces and to hamper his movements. His subordinate Hanno was able to raise troops in Samnium in 214 BC, but the Romans intercepted these new levies in the Battle of Beneventum and eliminated them before they rendezvoused with Hannibal. [100], Paullus and Varro marched southward to confront Hannibal, and encamped 10 km (6 mi) away. In 209 BC the new Roman commander Publius Scipio captured Carthago Nova, the main Carthaginian base in the peninsula. 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). Macedonia, Syracuse and several Numidiankingdoms were drawn into the f… These five armies (3 Carthaginian, 2 Roman… [91], The prisoners were badly treated if they were Romans; the Latin allies who were captured were well treated by the Carthaginians and many were freed and sent back to their cities, in the hope that they would speak well of Carthaginian martial prowess and of their treatment. No means of escape friendly term until things went south well the equal in power Rome! 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